A dummy head is just that - a model of a head, with microphones in the ears. Indeed, the extreme example is to put the microphones into the not-so-dummy ears of a real human.
Dummy heads may be realistic, or stylised, and may include shoulders as well; or they may be simplified to a sphere, with or without some sort of pinnae.
The Jecklin Disk is a flat disk with a microphone mounted each side of it. It can be viewed as an extreme simplification of a dummy head, but was more likely developed as a way of increasing time differences between spaced microphones without moving them further apart. Versions exists in which the disk may be hard or padded.